Building space for building teams

Inspired by a comment to one of my prior posts (You know that story of the Russian cosmonaut?), a comment about noise and getting into love with it, I thought it may be worth sharing some of our experience with building (office) space for building teams.

When we moved large-scale into Lean and Agile Software Development methodologies five years ago, the role and work of “the [cross-functional Scrum] team” got more and more important and we started to consider office space concepts that would better fit the new working model than our traditional 3-4 people offices that we had in some of our development locations (e.g. in the headquarter offices).

Colleagues were in search for collaboration space, needed spots for daily Scrum stand-up meetings and their Scrum boards, needed meetings rooms for the takt-start planning and takt-end review and retrospective meetings (all at the same time, of course). Also, we wanted to be able to move individuals easily and quickly around, if e.g. teams were changed or a UX designer was supposed to join a team, and we didn’t want to always wait for weeks to get an official move approved and implemented by facilities or contractors… “Grab your laptop and make yourself comfortable at your new spot” was the goal…

As a first try, we had experimented with 3 “team rooms” which had been set up by tearing 2 walls down and making 3 normal offices into a bigger team room. While the pilot teams that moved in liked the space after some adjustments for their team related work, it quickly became clear that a) they had only accepted the room because each one of them still had their original desk in their prior office room and b) the team room was “an island” that was missing support infrastructure around: ad-hoc meeting rooms the team could retreat into to not disturb the others, “phone cells” for phone conversations that were disturbing the others or private in nature. So we figured out that we need more than “team room” islands in the classical office environment, but a space for teams that has been designed for that purpose from the ground up.

 

That’s how we started the initiative called “Office Space for Teams” (OS4T), a collaboration of Facility Management, our central Lean unit and “the business”, i.e. parts of my R&D unit. The goal was to pilot concepts for office space particularly tailored at teams and their need for communication and collaboration, supporting innovation and creativity.

There’s meanwhile a short video about it on YouTube that you might want to check out (3 minutes) to get an impression yourself:

We quickly figured out that in a “Lean” environment, it would be stupid to not involve the main stakeholder into the whole design exercise: the Scrum teams themselves. So we ended with having a joint team from the three units above, plus external architects, plus representatives from the development teams themselves that gave input and guidance to the actual design the architects and interior designers came up with.

The declared goal was to emphasize “networking over nesting”, i.e. priority 1 was to provide teams with an environment that would foster communication and collaboration supporting innovation and and that would not make the individual’s wish for “nesting” the main goal. “Nesting” meaning: “let me alone, I want my private spot where noone disturbs me and I can ‘nest’ in”.

 

The area affected was two “H”-shaped wings of our building, seating around 280 colleagues before the remodeling. The restructuring of the old smaller office rooms, meetings rooms, coffee corner into a coherent overall concept, resulted in more than 30% additional workspaces, places where people could sit and work, simply due to the fact that a lot of space was “wasted” in the past with pathways to connect the offices. So the new design made better use of otherwise “dead” space.

I don’t want to bore you with the full story and all the nitty-gitty details — this goes beyond a blog post I fear and the video above may already give you a good sense of what Office Space for Teams is about — but share a few of the insights and learnings that we have made over the past months while “living” in the new space (I myself as well):

  1.  Open space for helping opening minds
    If you want to foster creativity and innovation — and software development is a highly creative undertaking — provide the team with light, color, diversified and a haptic rich environment.
    It helps getting into a creative and open state of mind. Sitting alone in a closed room, grey walls around you, a neon light buzzing at the ceiling and a steel door keeping everyone else out, is for sure not going to help make yourself more creative. Just to paint some extremes…
  2. Flexibility is key
    One of our goals was to make changing teams and “who sits where” easily changeable. One can think about moving tables — even though one has to acknowledge that there are health and safety regulations in place that forbid to place tables or workstations anywhere, have power lines crawling all over the floor etc.. But one can standardize on the workplace equipment, e.g. provide everyone with a (powerful) laptop and mobile rather than a workstation and a landline phone, have people use containers with rolls rather than fixed cupboards etc.. So that in practice they can move their own stuff within 5 minutes rather than waiting for 4 weeks for a contract mover to carry their boxes and IT to re-wire their workstation… So far, from what we’ve seen, things are flexible enough in our new office space and there wasn’t a strong demand to completely rearrange everything from ground up. We have changed team mixes a few times and people have been moving around quickly and easily. So it seems that one worked out.
  3. Not all teams like such a collaboration environment
    It seems that in particular teams, that rather are groups of people that work more or less independent from each other, consider a less “collaborative” environment more preferable as it is less distracting for them. If you’re in a team that is heavily interacting, e.g. because you are working in exploratory mode on a brand-new product idea, then the situation is very different. Feedback from such teams has been very positive. Which leads to the next finding:
  4. Believe it or not, but people are different
    No matter how well you design the workspace, people — and teams — are different. What works well for one, can be a pain in the neck for the other. So it seems advisable to provide people with enough “variation” of workplaces: some Design Thinking rooms for whole teams when in creative mode. Some more separated spots where individuals can work if they need concentration and don’t want to be disturbed. One developer wants to work rather isolated for a while, while others prefer to be more part of the group etc.. The only thing limiting what one could provide is normally space constraints. Or the fact that you won’t accomodate everyone’s perfect preference and still keep a team together locally somehow. Or finally the nasty constraint called “budget” — you cannot foresee everything and planning for the extreme case means usually “over-provisioning”. And this isn’t an option in most cases. So there’s always certain trade-offs to accept. And some learnings to be made.
  5. People will need time to “settle down” in the new space
    Whether you come from a completely open “cubicle space” environment or from a classical “two or three people in a room” one, you will need time to adjust yourself to the new setting. Also, people need to figure out how to use the space in the best way. We have one meeting room with bean-bag like seating, no table, just a projector at the ceiling and some whiteboard wall. Originally, the feedback from the team was: we can’t use that room. Later, when we wanted to actually change the room into a Design Thinking room, the same team came back and objected and wanted to keep the room as it was: because they had figured out what meetings were best done in that kind of setting (and liked it that way). And for other purposes they simply chose a different room.
  6. Beware of the “library effect”
    Being part of conversations is great. But only if it concerns your work. So while teams like the fact that you are easily informed about what’s going on in your team by “listening in” or being able to easily contribute, if the communication “flows over” from some neighboring team that is unrelated then it’s considered “noise”. So better make sure that teams are acoustically separated from each other. Otherwise you will quickly end up in what we call the “library atmosphere”: everybody is so concerned about disturbing someone else with their talk that no one dares to make any noise at all any more. The result is an artificially silent space: No one wants to speak because you feel everybody else in the room can understand every single word.
    So the more open a space is, the better your sound design needs to be. Concrete floors and bare ceilings, as stylish this may be as an “industrial look”, are probably not a good idea while carpets, sound absorbing ceilings and “sound breakers” in the room can make a big difference. Some glass walls (or real walls) and sound-proof doors are a great idea as well from time to time. Not everything has to be completely “open”.
    As a result, we have put glass walls around the “team living rooms” that were originally openly placed within the teams regular workplaces. The effect is that these spaces now get used for various purposes by the team — informal meetings, face-to-face discussion, reading, relaxing with a coffee after lunch… The glass walls shield sounds, but keep the open and light atmosphere overall.
  7. Fun is a serious thing in Germany
    So you have to plan for those things very thoroughly as well 😉 We turned some former server rooms into a pool billiard and a kicker room. Who works seriously needs to have some serious fun from time to time….
    We have made several surveys with people after we moved in: If asked whether they want to rather stay in the new office space or move back into the old office layout, roughly 2/3 prefer the new one over the old one. This is after 15 months “living” here roughly. This result was showing up after we had done an intensive “care-taking” phase immediately after moving in, collected feedback from the teams and adjusted dozens of specific details here and there based on input we had received. We now consider the concept a success overall, with admittedly the potential for further improvements as mentioned above. There’s always things to improve…

So that’s my personal experiences with our Office Space for Teams project, without the claim of completeness or final truth. I love to work in the new office space. But that, of course, is personal preference and taste.

 

P.S.: Uh, I forgot, we heard some concerns about “private space” in an open office environment. Developers (sometimes even managers) are a creative species. Nature always finds it’s way… 😉

 

 

How To Be A Workplace MVP by Lean In

Men are expected to be assertive and confident, so we welcome their leadership. In contrast, women are expected to be kind, nurturing, and compassionate, so when they lead, they go against our expectations and often face pushback as a result. Challenge these stereotypes by pointing out bias and supporting your female colleagues. You have a strong incentive to make sure that women succeed in your organization—men who work well with women and tap the full talents of their teams outperform their peers.

SITUATION

Success and likeability are positively correlated for men and negatively correlated for women. When a man is successful, his peers often like him more; when a woman is successful, both men and women often like her less. This trade-off between success and likeability creates a double bind for women. If a woman is competent, she does not seem nice enough, but if a woman seems really nice, she is considered less competent. This can have a big impact on a woman’s career. Ask yourself: Who are you more likely to support and promote, the man with high marks across the board or the woman who has equally high marks but is just not as well liked?

This bias often surfaces in the way women are described, both in passing and in performance reviews. When a woman asserts herself—for example, by speaking in a direct style or promoting her ideas—she is often called “aggressive” and “ambitious.” When a man does the same, he is seen as “confident” and “strong.”

SOLUTION

When you hear a woman called “bossy” or “shrill,” request a specific example of what the woman did and then ask, “Would you have the same reaction if a man did the same thing?” In many cases, the answer will be no. Remember that you can also fall into these bias traps, so think carefully about your own response to female coworkers.

1. CHALLENGE THE “LIKEABILITY PENALTY”

DID YOU KNOW?
In a Columbia Business School study, different groups of students read a case study about a venture capitalist with one single difference—gender. Students respected both “Howard” and “Heidi,” but Howard was described as likeable and Heidi was seen as selfish and not “the type of person you would want to hire or work for.”

Women are often hired
based on past performance,
while men are often hired
for their potential.

SITUATION

Male performance is often overestimated compared to female performance, starting with mothers overestimating boys’ crawling ability and underestimating girls’. This bias is even more pronounced when review criteria are unclear, making individuals more likely to rely on gut feelings and personal inferences. Over time, even small deviations in performance evaluation have a significant impact on women’s careers. This difference in the perceived performance of men and women also helps explains why women are hired and promoted based on what they have already accomplished, while men are hired and promoted based on their potential.

SOLUTION

Awareness begets fairness. Make sure everyone on your team is aware of the gender bias in evaluating performance. Be specific about what constitutes excellent performance, and make sure goals are set in advance, understood, and measurable. The clearer your criteria are, the better. Be prepared to explain your evaluations—and expect the same of others. When people are accountable for their decisions, they are more motivated to think through them carefully.

2. EVALUATE PERFORMANCE FAIRLY

DID YOU KNOW?
Gender-blind studies consistently show that removing gender from decisions improves women’s chances of success. One study found that replacing a woman’s name with a man’s name on a résumé improved the odds of getting hired by 61 percent.

SITUATION

Women and men ascribe their success to different things. Men typically attribute their success to innate qualities and skills, while women often attribute success to external factors such as “working hard,” “getting lucky,” or “help from others.” Women and men also differ when it comes to explaining their failures. When a man fails, he attributes it to situational factors like “didn’t practice enough” or “not interested in the subject.” When a woman fails, she is more likely to attribute it to lack of ability.

Moreover, women are often undervalued by others. When women and men work together on tasks, women are given less credit for successful outcomes and blamed more for failure.

Because women receive less credit—and give themselves less credit—their confidence often erodes. As a result, they are less likely to put themselves forward for promotions and stretch assignments.

SOLUTION

Make sure women get the credit they deserve and look for opportunities to acknowledge their contributions. When you introduce female coworkers, emphasize their accomplishments; this helps counteract any preconceived notions about their competence. Push back when women say that they’re “not ready” or “not qualified” for an opportunity—or when others say that about women—and encourage women to go for it!

3. GIVE WOMEN CREDIT

DID YOU KNOW?
Men will apply for jobs when they meet 60 percent of the hiring criteria, while women wait until they meet 100 percent.

Women get less airtime
and have less influence
in meetings.

SITUATION

Compared to women, men tend to talk more and make more suggestions in meetings, while women are interrupted more, given less credit for their ideas, and have less overall influence. This starts in school, where girls get less airtime and are interrupted more, even by the most well-intentioned teachers. If you watch men and women at the same level, you will notice that more of the men sit in the front and center seats, while women tend to gravitate toward the end of the table and edge of the room—away from positions that convey status.

Without full participation in meetings, you cannot tap everyone’s skills and expertise, and this undermines team outcomes.

SOLUTION

It’s important to make sure everyone speaks up and is heard. Start by encouraging women to sit front and center at meetings. If a female colleague is interrupted, interject and say you’d like to hear her finish. Openly ask women to contribute to the conversation. Be aware of “stolen ideas” and look for opportunities to acknowledge the women who first proposed them. And remember, when you advocate for coworkers, they benefit—and you’re seen as a leader.

4. GET THE MOST OUT OF MEETINGS

DID YOU KNOW?
In an eight-member team, three members will make 67 percent of comments. In a five-member team, two members will make 70 percent of comments.

SITUATION

Women take on more “office housework”—service and support work such as taking notes, organizing events, and training new hires. These tasks steal valuable time away from core responsibilities and can keep a team member from participating fully; the person taking diligent notes in the meeting almost never makes the killer point. In keeping with deeply held gender stereotypes, people expect help from women but not from men, so when women do favors at work, they earn no points for doing so—but when they say no, they are penalized. Men, on the other hand, gain points for saying yes and face minimal consequences for saying no.

Moreover, many women—including two-thirds of executive women in Fortune 200 companies—are in support roles, but line roles with profit-and-loss responsibility more often lead to senior leadership positions. Together, these dynamics can have a serious impact on women’s career trajectories.

SOLUTION

Pay attention to who volunteers for different types of work, and do your part to help distribute office housework equally. Consider picking up some yourself; it often creates opportunities to collaborate with different coworkers and develop new skills. Don’t fall into the trap of expecting women to take on stereotypical support roles like “team mom” or note taker.

5. SHARE OFFICE HOUSEWORK

DID YOU KNOW?
In a performance evaluation study, men who stayed late to help prepare for a meeting were rated 14 percent more favorably than women who did the exact same thing. When both men and women failed to help, the women were penalized with a 12 percent lower rating than the men.

Motherhood triggers
assumptions that women are
less competent and committed.

SITUATION

Many studies show that the pushback—or “maternal wall”—women experience when they have kids is the strongest gender bias. Motherhood triggers assumptions that a woman is less competent and less committed to her career. As a result, she is held to higher standards and presented with fewer opportunities.

This also impacts women who aren’t mothers—and men, too. Women often face pushback as soon as they’re engaged to be married, and fathers who leave work early or take time off for family pay a higher price than mothers. Studies show that fathers receive lower performance ratings and experience steeper reductions in future earnings after taking time away from work for family reasons.

Women also often “leave before they leave,” compromising their careers in anticipation of family responsibilities they do not yet have. They turn down projects, don’t apply for promotions, or choose more flexible paths to accommodate families they plan to have someday, closing doors to opportunities and limiting their options even before they become parents.

SOLUTION

Don’t assume mothers won’t be willing to take on challenging assignments or travel. Avoid telling moms “I don’t know how you do it,” which can signal that you think mothers should be at home. If you’re a parent, be vocal about the time you spend away from work with your children; this gives other parents in your organization permission to do the same. If it’s available to you, take paternity leave—and if it’s not, push your company for better policies. As more men and women bring their whole selves to work, the bias linked to motherhood—and fatherhood—will begin to break down.

6. MAKE WORK WORK FOR PARENTS

DID YOU KNOW?
In one study, three additional words on a résumé—“member of PTA”—made a woman 79 percent less likely to be hired.

How To Be A 50/50 Partner by Lean In

Women still do a majority of housework and childcare, and in many cases husbands’ careers get prioritized. Approach your relationship as a true partner. Couples who share responsibilities have stronger marriages—and their children benefit from seeing their parents model equality.

SITUATION

Communication is critical in relationships. Marriages are stronger when both partners talk through disagreements calmly and listen to each other’s perspectives, and this is particularly important when you’re managing a home or raising children together.

SOLUTION

Discuss your goals for your home and career with your partner. Listen carefully to what she wants and be vocal about your own needs. Then keep the conversation going. Talk through unresolved issues and review your calendars and to-do lists together. When you see your partner has too much to do, ask her how she’s feeling and how you can help.

1. COMMUNICATE OPENLY

DID YOU KNOW?
Women are interrupted more than men. Even if you’re supportive of the women in your life, you may not be giving them the airtime they deserve.

 

Couples are more likely
to relocate for the
husband’s career.

SITUATION

Many women make professional sacrifices to support their partner’s career, and men still assume their partner will do the lion’s share of child care. In addition, couples often prioritize the husband’s career when they make household decisions. Over time, these trends can lead to missed opportunities for you as a couple.

SOLUTION

Make decisions as a team. Consider what’s good for both of you, and be clear about each other’s trade-offs. It’s not about finding the perfect compromise with each decision; it’s about achieving a healthy balance over time. If you have children, treat child care as a joint responsibility.

2. MAKE DECISIONS AS A TEAM

DID YOU KNOW?
According to a survey of graduates from Harvard Business School, three-quarters of millennial women anticipate their careers will be at least as important as their partners, while half of millennial men believe their careers will take priority.

SITUATION

Running a house and raising children is hard work—and women still do most of it. This means many women don’t get the support they need at home, and women who work outside the home often end up with two full-time jobs while their partners have one. More women than ever are primary or co-breadwinners, yet only 9 percent of couples in dual-income marriages say that they share child care, housework, and breadwinning evenly.

SOLUTION

Approach the responsibilities of housework and child care as real partners. Commit to doing your share of daily chores, and make sure work is split fairly. Don’t wait to be asked—step up when you see dishes in the sink or laundry piling up.

3. DO YOUR SHARE AT HOME

DID YOU KNOW?
When men share household responsibilities, their wives are happier and their marriages are stronger. Not only does marital satisfaction go up, but couples have more sex—“choreplay” is real!


Women are more likely than men to think
their gender will make it hard to get a raise, promotion, or chance to get ahead.

SITUATION

Men typically apply for jobs when they meet 60 percent of the hiring criteria, while women wait until they meet 100 percent. Though women negotiate as often as men, they tend to ask for less money because they anticipate pushback. And they are right to worry—research shows that women are often penalized for asserting themselves. There is a good chance these dynamics impede your partner’s career advancement and your income as a couple.

SOLUTION

Encourage your partner to keep lobbying for a promotion or stretch assignment and commit to doing your fair share at home. When it’s time to negotiate her compensation, encourage her to ask for more and role play the conversation.

4. ENCOURAGE YOUR PARTNER TO LEAN IN

DID YOU KNOW?
Women who don’t negotiate for more leave money on the table. Over the course of their career, this can amount to hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost earnings.

SITUATION

We’re all held back by gender stereotypes. Women are expected to be kind and collaborative, while men are expected to be strong and in charge. As a result, we’re often uncomfortable when women lead and men nurture, which makes it harder for all of us to be our whole selves.

SOLUTION

Show the people in your life what equality looks like. Model a broader definition of manhood and celebrate your partner’s ambitions. If you have kids, encourage your daughter to speak up and take the lead and your son to respect his feelings and care for others. Point out and challenge gender bias when you see it. When you reject outdated stereotypes, others will follow.

5. MODEL EQUALITY

DID YOU KNOW?
Seventy-six percent of people who’ve taken Harvard University’s Implicit Association Test more readily associate males with “career” and females with “family.” You can take it yourself at leanin.org/IAT.

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